Toronto General Hospital Department of Anesthesia & Pain Management

Perioperative Echocardiography Education

General Resources

Previous Years’ Lectures

Other PTE Courses On-line

  1. University of Utah, Perioperative Echocardiography Education

3D Model & Image Collections

  1. Normal Cardiac Anatomy (including the whole heart blood pool model)
  2. Toronto Adult Congenital Heart Disease Atlas
  3. Congenital Heart Disease diagrams from (open source – cc-by license)
  4. Toronto General Hospital, Perioperative Interactive Education
  5. Wikimedia heart illustrations and video clips (open source – cc-by license) – See specifically the excellent images by P. Lynch.

Echo Simulators On-line

  1. APIL Echocardiography Simulator (TEE and TTE)

2021 Perioperative TEE NBE Exam Preparation Course

Lecture 1: Anatomy for Echocardiography

  1. Mashari – Anatomy for Echocardiography (Slides PDF)
  2. Quiz

Lecture recording (2019) & 3D models

Human Heart Base by APIL

Whole Heart Blood Pool Model by APIL

Standard echocardiographic imaging planes in 3D (12 clips)



  1. Zimmerman, Basic Cardiac Anatomy for the Echocardiographer (Recorded lecture from University of Utah Perioperative Echocardiography Education)
  2. McGiffin D. Cardiac Anatomy.
  3. Faletra FF, Ho SY, Leo LA, Paiocchi VL, Mankad S, Vannan M, et al. Which Cardiac Structure Lies Nearby? Revisiting Two-Dimensional Cross-Sectional Anatomy. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography. 2018 Sep 1;31(9):967–75.

Heart Base

  1. Zimmerman J. The Functional and Surgical Anatomy of the Heart. Hunterian Lecture; 1966 Jan 13; Royal College of Surgeons of England.

Chambers and Orientation Terminology

  1. Partridge JB, Anderson RH. Left ventricular anatomy: its nomenclature, segmentation, and planes of imaging. Clin Anat. 2009 Jan;22(1):77–84.
  2. Anderson RH, Cook AC. The structure and components of the atrial chambers. Europace. 2007 Nov 1 [cited 2015 Dec 18];9(suppl 6):vi3–9.
  3. Anderson RH, Loukas M. The importance of attitudinally appropriate description of cardiac anatomy. Clin Anat. 2009 Jan; 22(1):47–51.

Coronary arteries

  1. Loukas M, Groat C, Khangura R, Owens DG, Anderson RH. The normal and abnormal anatomy of the coronary arteries. Clin Anat. 2009 Jan;22(1):114–28.
  2. Chiu I-S, Anderson RH. Can we better understand the known variations in coronary arterial anatomy? Ann Thorac Surg. 2012 Nov;94(5):1751–60.


  1. Moorman A, Webb S, Brown NA, Lamers W, Anderson RH. Development of the heart: (1) Formation of the cardiac chambers and arterial trunks. Heart. 2003 Jul 1 ;89(7):806–14.
  2. Anderson RH, Webb S, Brown NA, Lamers W, Moorman A. Development of the heart: (2) Septation of the atriums and ventricles. Heart. 2003;89(8):949–58.
  3. Anderson RH, Webb S, Brown NA, Lamers W, Moorman A. Development of the heart: (3) Formation of the ventricular outflow tracts, arterial valves, and intrapericardial arterial trunks. Heart. 2003;89(9):1110–8.

Lecture 2: Ultrasound Physics

  1. Mashari – Ultrasound Physics Questions and Answers (PDF)
  2. Quiz


  1. Basic ultrasound for clinicians
  2. Hunting Bats (Video)
  3. An Interactive Guide to the Fourier Transform
  4. PTEmasters, Physics of Ultrasound (11 parts)
  5. Edelman SK. Understanding Ultrasound Physics. 3rd ed. ESP; 2003.
  6. Fish P. Physics and Instrumentation of Diagnostic Medical Ultrasound. Wiley; 1990. 268 p.
  7. Miele FR. Ultrasound Physics and Instrumentation. 4th ed. Forney, TX: Miele Enterprises, Inc.; 2006.
  8. Thomas JD, Rubin DN. Tissue harmonic imaging: why does it work? J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1998 Aug;11(8):803–8.

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